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Personalised recommendations. Cite article How to cite? ENW EndNote. Buy options. The non-destructive ultrasonic testing demonstrated the profound effect of density and moisture. Increasing density of AAC caused a significant reduction of the velocity. Two complementary techniques were used.

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The first semi-non-destructive test can determine compressive strength of masonry units based on testing specimens of any shape. This technique can be used independently if at least 18 specimens can be prepared cf. EN [ 1 ] —like for concrete. The second is the non-destructive ultrasound method, which cannot be generally used without scaling the obtained curve.

However, the great advantage of this solution is the reduced number of specimens to be prepared and scaled. The number of six drilled cores or cuboid specimens can be assumed as minimum. After scaling the curve, measurements can be made at any number of points and AAC strength can be determined. Performed tests indicated the impact of AAC density and moisture on both compressive strength and ultrasound velocity. Authors would like to express particular thanks to Solbet Sp. Company for its technical support and supply of materials used during the research works. Conceptualization, R.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Materials Basel v. Materials Basel. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Akademicka 5, Gliwice, Poland; lp. Received Dec 23; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Minor-destructive MDT and non-destructive NDT techniques are not commonly used for masonry as they are complex and difficult to perform. Keywords: autoclaved aerated concrete AAC , compressive strength, shape and size of specimen, moisture of AAC, ultrasonic testing.

Introduction Significant variations in materials, technology, and performance cause that masonry structures are much more difficult to be diagnosed than concrete or reinforced concrete, for which the standard EN [ 1 ] specifies both the methodology of tests and conclusions.

Minor-Destructive Testing 2. Specimens, Technique of Tests, and Analysis Tests included four series of masonry units with thickness within the range of — mm and different classes of density: , , , and , from each 20 masonry units were randomly selected. Open in a separate window. Figure 1.

see Figure 2. Table 1 Results from compressive tests performed on core cylindrical specimens. Table 2 Results from compressive tests performed on cuboid specimens. Table 3 Test results for AAC density. Figure 3. Determining an Empirical Curve in Air-Dry Conditions If strength of the material depends on its defects, such as pores or voids, then individual specimens of different shapes can have significantly different values.

Figure 4. Test results for all core and cube specimens and determined curve of correlation. Table 4 Comparison of coefficients and equations of empirical curves. Calibrating a Curve in Air-Dry Conditions Many curves developed for specific density of AAC were replaced with a curve that was more favourable for diagnostic purposes and could be used to determine the strength of AAC with any density and moisture content.

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Figure 5. Calibrating an Empirical Curve in Moisture Conditions Properties of AAC and ordinary concrete depend on moisture contents [ 25 , 33 , 34 ], which cause a clear reduction in compressive and tensile strengths, and degradation of insulating parameters. Table 5 Test results for AAC with varying moisture content. Figure 6. Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Method The application of traditional cylindrical transducers may be difficult, as it requires the agent coupling with the tested surface.

Testing Technique of Specimens Non-destructive tests on AAC were performed using the ultrasonic testing, commonly applied for testing strength of concrete [ 38 , 39 ], and testing masonry walls [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. Figure 7. Table 6 Test results for ultrasound velocity in AAC with varying moisture content. Figure 8. Calibrating a Curve in Moisture Conditions The practical use of obtained test results required the common curve covering both the varying density of AAC and the moisture impact. Figure 9. Table 7 Comparison of coefficients and equations of empirical curves.

Procedure Algorithm for Determining Characteristic Compressive Strength of Masonry Proposed empirical procedure for determining characteristic compressive strength of masonry with semi-non-destructive and non-destructive techniques can be described with the following steps shown in Table 8. Conclusions The preformed tests confirmed the effect of specimen shape on compressive strength in the analyzed type of autoclaved aerated concrete and on the method of specimen failure.

Acknowledgments Authors would like to express particular thanks to Solbet Sp. Author Contributions Conceptualization, R. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest. References 1. The estimation of compressive stress level in brick masonry using the flat-jack method. Procedia Eng. Corradi M. Experimental study on the determination of strength of masonry walls.

Suprenant B. Hanley Wood Inc. Noland J. PB Schuller M. McCann D. Review of NDT methods in the assessment of concrete and masonry structures. NDT E Int. Binda L. Volume Final Draft. Schubert P. Ernst und Sohn; Berlin, Germany: In German [ Google Scholar ]. Schrank R. Matysek P. Compressive strength of brick masonry in existing buildings—Research on samples cut from the structures. In: Modena C. In Polish [ Google Scholar ]. Determination of Compressive Strength. EN Methods of test for masonry units.

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